Literature Index

The scientific basis of our technology has been extensively published by our CSO Dr. Mark Erwin in over 30 peer-reviewed journals.
  1. Matta A, Karim MZ, Gerami H, Benigno BZ, Cheng I, Mehrkens A, Erwin WM, "A Single Injection of NTG-101 Reduces the Expression of Pain-Related Neurotrophins in a Canine Model of Degenerative Disc Disease" International Journal of Molecular Biosciences, 2022, 23, 5717 (doi: 10.3390/ijms23105717)
  2. Matta A, Erwin WM “Current Status of the Instructional Cues Provided by Notochordal Cells in Novel Disc Repair Strategies. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23, 427. https://
  3. Matta A, Karim MZ, Gerami H, Benigno BZ, Erwin WM “A comparative study of mesenchymal stem cell transplantation and NTG‑101 molecular therapy to treat degenerative disc disease”, Scientific Reports 2021 Jul 20;11(1):14804 doi: 10.1038/s41598-021-94173-w.
  4. Matta A, Erwin WM, “Injectable Biologics for the Treatment of Degenerative Disc Disease” Updates in Spine Surgery-Techniques, Biologics and Non-Operative Management, Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine e-pub 23 July 2020,
  5. Matta A, Karim, MZ, Gerami H, Jun P, Funabashi M, Kawchuk G, Goldstein A, Foltz W, Sussman W, Eek BC, Erwin WM NTG-101: A novel molecular therapy that halts the progression of degenerative disc disease” Scientific Reports 8, 16809, doi:10.1038/s41598-018-35011-4 (2018). 
  6. Brown S, Matta A, Erwin WM, Roberts S, Gruber HH, Hanley EN, Little CB, Melrose J “Cell Clusters are Indicative of Stem Cell Activity in the Degenerate Intervertebral Disc: Can their Properties be Manipulated to Improve Intrinsic Repair of the Disc?” Stem Cells and Development Feb 1;27, 147-165 (2018)
  7. Rosenberg Gary, Yee Albert, Erwin W Mark “Bedside to Bench and back to Bedside: Translational Implications of Targeted Intervertebral Disc Therapeutics”, Journal of Orthopaedic Translation (2017), 10: 18-27
  8. Matta A, Karim MZ, Isenman D, Erwin WM “Molecular Therapy for Degenerative Disc Disease: Clues from Secretome Analysis of the Notochordal Cell-Rich Nucleus Pulposus”, Scientific Reports (2017), March 7:45623 doi:10.1038/srep45623
  9. Cho S, Iatridis J, Vaccaro A, Choma T, Dowdell J, Erwin WM, “Intervertebral disc degeneration and repair” Neurosurgery (2017), Vol 80 No.3, March supplement S46-54
  10. Mehrkens A, Matta A, Karim MZ, Kimi S, Fehlings MG, Schaeren S, W Mark Erwin Notochordal cell-derived conditioned medium protects human nucleus pulposus cells from stress-induced apoptosis” The Spine Journal (2017), Jan 9. S1529-9430(17)30003-7. doi: 10.1016/j.spinee.2017.01.00 Vol 17 579-588
  11. Matta A, Karim MZ, Isenman D, Erwin WM “Notochordal cell-based therapeutics can regenerate the degenerative disc” The Spine Journal, 2016, Vol 16, Number 10S S169
  12. Muller S, Acevedo L, Wang Xiaomei, Karim M Zia, Matta A, Mehrkens A, Schaeren S, Feliciano S, Jakob M, Martin I, Barbero A and Erwin WM “Notochordal cell conditioned medium (NCCM) regenerates end-stage human osteoarthritic articular chondrocytes and promotes a healthy phenotype” (2016) Arthritis Research and Therapy 18:125, doi10.1186/s13075-016-1026-x
  13. Erwin EM, DeSouza L, Funabashi M, Kawchuk G, Karim MZ, Kim S, Maedler S, Matta A, Wang X, Merhrkens “The Biological Basis of Degenerative Disc Disease: Proteomic and Biomechanical Analysis of the Canine Intervertebral Disc” Arthritis Research and Therapy 17:240 doi 10.1186/s13075-015-0733-z October 2015 
  14. Erwin WM, Hood KE, “The Cellular and Molecular Biology of the Intervertebral Disc: A Clinician’s Primer” Journal of the Canadian Chiropractic Association, 2014, 58(3):246-257
  15. Hawryluk G, Spano S, Chew D, Wang S, Erwin M, Chamankhah M, Forgione N, Fehlings M. “An Examination of The Mechanisms by Which Neural Precursors Augment Recovery Following Spinal Cord Injury: A Key Role for Remyelination” Cell Transplantation March 2014 Vol 23,365-380
  16. Mehrkens A, Karim MZ, Kim S, Hilario R, Fehlings MG, Erwin WM, “Canine Notochordal Cell-Secreted Factors Protect Murine and Human Nucleus Pulposus Cells from Apoptosis by Inhibition of Activated Casease-9 and -3/7” Evidence Based Spine Journal October 2013, Issue 2 Volume 4 154-156
  17. Rhee JM, Shamji MF, Erwin WM, Bransford RJ, Yoon ST, Smith JS, Kim HJ, Ely CG, Dettori JR, Patel AA, Kalsi-Ryan S “Non-operative management of cervical myelopathy: a systematic review” SPINE 2013 Oct 15;38(22 Suppl 1): S55-67
  18. Erwin W Mark, Korpela, A Pauliina, Jones, Robert A, “Chiropractors as Primary Spine Care Providers: precedents and essential measures” Journal of the Canadian Chiropractic Association September 2013; 57(4):285-291
  19. Karadimas Spryidon, Erwin W Mark, Ely Claire G, Dettori Joseph, Fehlings MG, “The Natural History and Pathophysiology of Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy”. SPINE 2013, Volume 38, Number 22S ppS21-S36
  20. Erwin WM: “Biologically-Based Therapy for the Intervertebral Disc:  Who is the patient?”  Global Spine Journal, May 2013 doi: 10.1055/s-0033-1343074
  21. Erwin WM: “Canonical Wnt Signaling and Caveolae Play a Role in Intervertebral Disc Degeneration; The Continuing Saga of the Mysterious Notochordal Cell” (Invited Editorial) Arthritis Research & Therapy 2013, 15:113
  22. Erwin WM, Eftekharpour E, Islam D, Inman RD, Fehlings MG “Intervertebral Disc-Derived Stem Cells:  Implications for Regenerative Medicine and Neural Repair” SPINE 2013, Volume 38, Number 3, pp 211–216
  23. Erwin WM, Fehlings MG “Intervertebral Disc Degeneration: Genes Hold the Key” World Neurosurgery (Invited Editorial) June 2012; doi:10.1016/j
  24. Haldeman S, Kopansky-Giles D, Hurwitz D, Hoy D, Erwin WM, Dagenais S, Kawchuck G, Stromqvist B. Walsh N. “Bone and Joint Decade Report: Moving Together Beyond the Decade”: Best Practices and Research: Clinical Rheumatology 2012 April 26(2):263-80
  25. Erwin WM, Islam D, Inman RD, Fehlings MG “Notochordal Cells Protect Nucleus Pulposus Cells from Degradation and Apoptosis: Implications for the Pathophysiology and Treatment of Intervertebral Disc Degeneration”, Arthritis Research and Therapy 2011, 13(6): R215 Epub 2011 Dec 29
  26. Las Heras F, DaCosta FS, Pritzker PH, Haroon N, Netchev G, Tsui HW, Chiu B, Erwin WM, Tsui FWL, and Inman RD, “Aberrant axial mineralization precedes spinal ankylosis: A molecular imaging study in ank/ank mice” Arthritis Research and Therapy 2011 Oct 12;13(5): R163. [Epub ahead of print]
  27. Standaert C, Friedly J, Rechtine G, Erwin WM, Lee M, Hennrickson N and Norvell DC “Comparative Effectiveness of Exercise, Acupuncture and Spinal Manipulation for Low Back Pain”: Spine 1 October 2011 - Volume 36 - Issue - p S120–S130 doi: 10.1097/BRS.0b013e31822ef878
  28. Erwin WM, “The Enigma That is The Nucleus Pulposus Cell: The Search Goes On” Arthritis Research and Therapy 2010 12:1\
  29. Erwin WM, Las Heras F, Islam D, Fehlings MG, Inman RD, “The Regenerative Capacity of the Notochordal Cell: Tissue Constructs Generated in Vitro under Hypoxic Conditions” Journal of Neurosurgery-Spine June 2009 10:513-521
  30. Erwin WM, “The Notochord, Notochordal Cell and CTGF/CCN-2:  Ongoing Activity from Development through Maturation” Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling, EPub Nov 12, 2008
  31. Erwin WM, Ashman K, O’Donnell P, Inman, RD “Nucleus pulposus notochord cells secrete connective tissue growth factor and up-regulate proteoglycan expression by intervertebral disc chondrocytes” Arthritis and Rheumatism 2006 54;12: Dec 3859-3867.
  32. Erwin WM, Inman, RD “Notochord Cells Regulate Intervertebral Disc Chondrocyte Proteoglycan Production and Cell Proliferation” Spine 2006 31;10:1094-1099
  33. Yang, Bing L., Yang, Burton B., Erwin, W. Mark., Ang, L. C., Finkelstein, Joel, and Yee, Albert J. “Versican G3 Domain enhances cellular adhesion and proliferation of bovine intervertebral disc cells cultured in vitro” Life Sci. 2003 Nov 14;73(26):3399-413.
  34. Salo Paul T, Erwin W Mark, Bray Robert C, Seeratten, Ruth A.  “Aging, Joint Innervation and Osteoarthritis:  Evidence for a Neuropathic Contribution to the Development of Spontaneous Knee Osteoarthritis in a Mouse Model” Acta Orthop Scand. 2002 Jan;73(1):77-84.
  35. Erwin WM, Paiwand F, Doherty P, and Inman R “Is the Notochordal Cell the Key to Intervertebral Disc Homeostasis?” Arthritis and Rheumatism December 2001 Supplement abstract #1525
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